Invert/EE-Lab is a dynamic bottom-up techno-socio-economic simulation tool that evaluates the effects of different policy packages on the total energy demand, energy carrier mix, CO2 reductions and costs for space heating, cooling, hot water preparation and lighting in buildings. The model is based on highly disaggregated data of the building stock. Each building segment is described by geometry data, U-values of building components, construction period, age and type of installed heating and hot water system etc.


Invert/EE-Lab has been developed by Vienna University of Technology/EEG in the frame of the Altener project Invert (Investing in RES&RUE technologies: models for saving public money) in the years 2003-2005. During several projects and studies the model has been extended and applied to different regions within Europe.

In the year 2010 the model was extended and modified in a re-programming process, in particular taking into account the inhomogeneous structure of decision makers in the building sector and corresponding distributions (Müller, 2010; Müller, 2015). In 2014, the model was extended with an agent specific decision approach integrating stakeholder behaviour (Steinbach 2015). Sara Fritz added a district heating and gas grid optimization module to Invert/EE-Lab (Fritz 2016).

In 2021 Invert/Opt model (Hummel and al., 2021), evolution of the Invert/EE-Lab model, was developed offering a focus on how energy demand and efficiency in buildings should evolve to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. Projections include population, gross floor area, total heat demand, specific heat demand, and renovation rates.

In recent years two more models have been underdeveloped according to the necessities of new energy politics for European countries. The Invert/Acc applies an accounting approach, and Invert/CC derives energy saving (and supply) cost curves, models designed to complement the functions of the previous ones.